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Queen's Gambit Declined (D31)
1 d4 d5 2 c4 e6 3 Nc3

Number of games in database: 8965
Years covered: 1843 to 2023
Overall record:
   White wins 38.8%
   Black wins 27.0%
   Draws 34.2%

Popularity graph, by decade

Explore this opening  |  Search for sacrifices in this opening.
With the White Pieces With the Black Pieces
Aleksej Aleksandrov  42 games
Sergey Volkov  41 games
Irina Krush  36 games
Pavel Tregubov  67 games
Efim Geller  45 games
Michele Godena  38 games
NOTABLE GAMES [what is this?]
White Wins Black Wins
Schlechter vs W John, 1905
Karpov vs Kasparov, 1985
Botvinnik vs Petrosian, 1963
Botvinnik vs Petrosian, 1963
NN vs G Abrahams, 1929
Spielmann vs Eliskases, 1932
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 page 1 of 359; games 1-25 of 8,965 
Game  ResultMoves YearEvent/LocaleOpening
1. Kieseritzky vs E Rousseau 0-1241843Offhand GameD31 Queen's Gambit Declined
2. M van 't Kruijs vs M M Coopman 0-1521851AmsterdamD31 Queen's Gambit Declined
3. T Lichtenhein vs C Stanley 1-04618571st American Chess Congress, New YorkD31 Queen's Gambit Declined
4. L Maczuski vs I Turgenev 0-1471861ParisD31 Queen's Gambit Declined
5. J White vs A W Ensor 0-1271873Canadian ChampionshipD31 Queen's Gambit Declined
6. Blackburne vs M Fleissig 1-01031873ViennaD31 Queen's Gambit Declined
7. Carl Doppler Senior vs F Riemann ½-½471877Leipzig Anderssen Main tournamentD31 Queen's Gambit Declined
8. Englisch vs Anderssen  ½-½611877LeipzigD31 Queen's Gambit Declined
9. J F Malta vs J Blank  0-1401880DCA Congress 8thD31 Queen's Gambit Declined
10. J S Ryan vs J Grundy  0-14718805th American Chess Congress, New YorkD31 Queen's Gambit Declined
11. Englisch vs P Ware  1-0381882ViennaD31 Queen's Gambit Declined
12. Meitner vs Englisch  1-0541882ViennaD31 Queen's Gambit Declined
13. C Febvret vs Gossip 0-1511883London (Vizayanagaram)D31 Queen's Gambit Declined
14. Englisch vs J Mason 0-1611883LondonD31 Queen's Gambit Declined
15. Englisch vs J Noa 1-0531883LondonD31 Queen's Gambit Declined
16. Blackburne vs Gunsberg 1-04518875th DSB Congress, FrankfurtD31 Queen's Gambit Declined
17. Von Bardeleben vs A Fritz  1-04918896th DSB Congress, BreslauD31 Queen's Gambit Declined
18. B Fleissig vs J Bauer 0-1351890Kolisch MemorialD31 Queen's Gambit Declined
19. Steinitz vs Gunsberg ½-½271890Steinitz - Gunsberg World Championship MatchD31 Queen's Gambit Declined
20. J F Heemskerk vs R Loman  0-1521891DCA Congress 19thD31 Queen's Gambit Declined
21. E Varain vs Lipke 0-13318938th DSB Congress, KielD31 Queen's Gambit Declined
22. J E Crewe vs T I Ryan 1-0291895NSW v Victoria telegraph matchD31 Queen's Gambit Declined
23. Steinitz vs Bird 0-1351895HastingsD31 Queen's Gambit Declined
24. Burn vs Tarrasch 0-1301895HastingsD31 Queen's Gambit Declined
25. Blackburne vs Von Bardeleben 1-0301895HastingsD31 Queen's Gambit Declined
 page 1 of 359; games 1-25 of 8,965 
  REFINE SEARCH:   White wins (1-0) | Black wins (0-1) | Draws (1/2-1/2)  

Kibitzer's Corner
Sep-05-05  azaris: 3...Bb4 is not often mentioned but seems to crop up regularly. I play 4. e3, but 4. Nf3 would seem to allow NID type positions. Both are quiet lines where White has a small positional edge but Black has no trouble throwing in c7-c5.

So how about something more exciting? 4. a3!? Bxc3 5. bxc3 dxc4 6. e4 b5 7. Qg4 leaves Black with the option of Ne7 since he hasn't played Nf6 yet, but White has more space. I'm not sure how many people will snatch the pawn though.

Jun-23-06  refutor: i don't get what the advantage is of the noteboom (1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.nc3 c6 4.Nf3 dxc4) is to the normal slav...can someone educate me?
Jun-23-06  KingG: <refutor> I don't play it myself, but i know a bit about it.

Basically, in the Noteboom, Black is better prepared to try and hang on to the extra pawn, since he hasn't yet played ...Nf6. Eventually, White can get the pawn back, but it leads to a strange pawn structure, where Black has two connected passed pawns on the Q-side, but White has a huge pawn centre. So White will try and win in the middlegame and black tries to hang on until the endgame where his passed pawns will be a big advantage.

The main line is:

1. d4 d5 2. c4 e6 3. Nc3 c6 4. Nf3 dxc4 5. e3 b5 6. a4 Bb4 7. Bd2 a5 8. axb5 Bxc3 9. Bxc3 cxb5 10. b3 Bb7 11. bxc4 b4 12. Bb2 Nf6

click for larger view

Jun-23-06  refutor: what if 5.a4? it's just a bad slav where black's light squared bishop is inside the pawn chain...i'm just curious
Jun-23-06  KingG: <refutor> The difference is, in the Slav, Black doesn't have the quick ...Bb4, making it difficult for White to regain the pawn.

In this variation, a4 doesn't prevent ...b5 like it does in the Slav, so after 5.a4 Bb4 6.e3 b5, we've transposed back into the line i gave above.

Oct-12-06  jahhaj: Anyone have any experience with the move 7...Qe7 in the Noteboom variation? See Opening Explorer

The idea is to support a pawn advance to b4 (something that normally takes two moves in the main line), so White's normal plan of b3 is prevented. It's not obvious at all to me how White should respond.

Oct-12-06  soughzin: 1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 c6 4.e3 and black has to transpose to the semi-slav Meran instead of playing the noteboom right? I guess that's one benefit of playing the Meran as white instead of the Botvinnik/Moscow to the semi slav, no noteboom and no backdoor Cambridge Springs defenses.
Oct-12-06  MaxxLange: Anyone seen Kasparov's QGD dvd? Is it good?
Oct-13-06  jahhaj: <soughzin> You could play 4...f5 if the Stonewall Dutch is to your taste. Having played e3 White has commited to quite a passive line as well.

Oct-13-06  soughzin: Yeah that's a good choice although I don't play the noteboom,I play against it so thanks for fueling my opponents!; )
Oct-16-06  jahhaj: <soughzin> Should have figured that out, Sorry! Maybe you could play 4.e4 instead?
Oct-16-06  RookFile: I once saw a game go 1. d4 d5 2. c4 e6 3. Nc3 f5 4. e4 !? dxe4 5. f3 and thought that was an interesting idea.
Dec-18-06  soughzin: Speaking of the noteboom... I'm looking for a teammate to my semi-slav as I don't really enjoy the Botvinnik or Moscow(guess I'm picky!) So it's this or the Cambridge. I like the unbalanced nature of the noteboom but I'm slightly weary of the goal of "holding on" until the endgame. But bascially I was wondering which is more dangerous,(and which black should concentrate more on) the mainlines or the marshall gambit? Also it'd be nice to know if there's any good books or sites on the noteboom. Thanks!
Premium Chessgames Member
  plang: The only book I am aware of is "Play the Noteboom" by Mark Van Der Werf and Teun Van Der Vorm (Cadogan 1996)

It is certainly not a great book but it is OK.

Feb-26-09  blacksburg: nobody plays the QGD anymore. i'm thinking about making it my main d4 defense, to go with my 100 year old e4 repertoire. i'm gonna switch between lasker defense, TMB, orthodox, etc, and i know all these lines already from studying capablanca, lasker, alekhine games.

is there any reason i shouldn't play this opening as black at amateur level? it seems like it might be a good practical idea.

Feb-26-09  nescio: <blacksburg> You know, or should know, that at amateur level you can play anything in the opening, as long as you know what you are doing. See for example the games of Basman or Welling.

For the positions after 1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 I would, in addition to the names you already mentioned, recommend the games of Stahlberg and Spasski.

The actual reason for my response is the follwing question: What is TMB and what are the moves of "lasker defence" and "orthodox"?

Feb-26-09  blacksburg: <nescio> the lasker defense is characterized by a quick ...Ne4, Queen's Gambit Declined, Lasker Defense (D57)

the "TMB" is this monstrosity, Queen's Gambit Declined, Tartakower (Makagonov-Bondarevsky) Syst (D58), characterized by ...b6 and ...Bb7.

the so-called "orthodox", Queen's Gambit Declined, Orthodox Defense (D60), is really a complex of lines. i think that it was named by Tarrasch.

i like gerard welling too, but no way i'm gonna try to play like that. :)

Feb-26-09  blacksburg: incidentally, here are the other main options for black, if anyone is curious, and for my own use.

the Tarrasch Defense, Queen's Gambit Declined, Tarrasch (D32), characterized by a quick ...c5, the positions are often defined by black's isolated queen's pawn, played by Kasparov when he was younger.

the related Semi-Tarrasch, Queen's Gambit Declined, Semi-Tarrasch (D41), characterized by a delayed ...c5.

the Cambridge Springs, Queen's Gambit Declined (D52), characterized by ...Qa5 and often quick pressure on c3,, is there no independent page for the Cambridge Springs? :(

the Semi-Slav, which is a whole different ball of wax, and beyond the scope of this post (and also my brain), Queen's Gambit Declined Semi-Slav (D43)

the Ragozin, characterized by ...Bb4, Queen's Gambit Declined, Ragozin Variation (D38), this seems to have a bad reputation, i've never played it, and i don't know much about it, but it doesn't look so bad to me.

the Chigorin, characterized by ...Nc6, Queen's Gambit Declined, Chigorin Defense (D07), i guess this is outside the scope, no 2...e6. also the Albin, Queen's Gambit Declined, Albin Counter Gambit (D08).

there are also Catalans to think about, characterized by g3 and Bg2, for example, Catalan, Closed, 5.Nf3 (E06).

whew. i think i got everything, but feel free to add if i missed something.

Feb-26-09  nescio: <blacksburg> Thank you. On this site it happens too often that people throw some names in without giving the moves. In only one of the kibitzes on this page I see the "Botvinnik", "Moscow", "Cambridge", and "marshall gambit" which is confusing for people who don't have their nose in opening books daily. Often I just don't know what's what. On the other hand there is <refutor> who gives "noteboom (1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 c6 4.Nf3 dxc4)".

<i like gerard welling too, but no way i'm gonna try to play like that. :)>

Me neither, though it's entertaining when your opponent plays like that. Once I played against Basman who started with 1.h3 and 2.a3 and tried to convince me afterwards that that sequence is more precise than 1.a3 and 2.h3. After he had won of course.

Premium Chessgames Member
  Penguincw: Opening of the Day

Queen's Gambit, Noteboom Variation
1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.♘c3 c6 4.♘f3 dxc4

click for larger view

Oct-05-13  Kikoman: <Opening of the Day>

Queen's Gambit, Noteboom Variation
1. d4 d5 2. c4 e6 3. Nc3 c6 4. Nf3 dxc4

click for larger view

Opening Explorer

Premium Chessgames Member
  alexmagnus: So, does anyone know why the Forgotten Variation of the Marshall Gambit is named as it is? Who "forgot" it?

Please no punny answer like "I used to know it but I have forgotten" :D

Premium Chessgames Member
  saffuna: <Please no punny answer like "I used to know it but I have forgotten" >


Nov-16-21  sudoplatov: Marshall may not have invented it but he did play it against Lasker in his first game against Manny. Marshall won; he won a game in about 1940 but lost (or drew) everything in between.

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